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Are food delivery apps increasing access to junk food?

Introduction by Croakey: Online food delivery services have become a staple of the COVID lockdown experience for many households – providing safe and convenient access to food and a way to support local restaurants and cafes.

But should we be concerned about the longer-term health impacts of this increased access to access to non-nutritious food?

In a recent Australian and New Zealand study, a group of researchers analysed data from Uber Eats, during January and February 2020.

They raise some concerning findings and suggest three strategies to shape the online food environment to promote easy access to healthy and nutritious convenience food.

These suggestions raise many of the same issues addressed by the Menzies Centre for Health Governance’s project on regulatory governance pathways to improve the efficacy of Australian food policies.

They also highlight the need for public health input into COVID-related policies and regulations, such as the use junk food to incentivise COVID vaccines.

This article was originally published in The Conversation and is re-posted here with permission.


Stephanie Partridge et al write:

With the simple touch of a smartphone, online food delivery services conveniently offer takeaway food straight to your door.

Contact-free delivery has surged in popularity as lockdowns have limited physical access to restaurants and food outlets. Industry reports suggest Australians are spending three times more on online food delivery than before the COVID-19 pandemic.

Globally, online food delivery is set to become a US$200 billion industry by 2025.

While these delivery apps provide easy access to a variety of foods, they may be harmful for our health.

Increased access to fast food

During January and February 2020, we analysed data from Uber Eats, the market-leading online food delivery service in Australia and New Zealand.

We focused on online food ordering in 233 suburbs in Sydney and 186 suburbs in Auckland with above-average populations of young people (aged 15-34). This age group represents the biggest consumers of online takeaway foods.

We evaluated 1,074 popular food outlets available on Uber Eats across Sydney and Auckland by type and nutritional quality.

Results showed fast-food chains were the most popular food outlets. Fast-food chains accounted for 38% of the popular food outlets we looked at in Sydney and 54% in Auckland.

In Sydney, the most common fast-food chains were McDonald’s (54 stores, 8.4%), Subway (52 stores, 7.6%), Oporto (42 stores, 6.2%) and Domino’s (19 stores, 2.8%).

In Auckland, the most common fast-food chains were Subway (46 stores, 11.7%), McDonald’s (40 stores, 10.2%), Burger King (24 stores, 6.1%) and Hell Pizza (20 stores, 5.1%).

These fast-food chains were all classified in the lowest healthiness category.

When The Conversation contacted Uber Eats for comment, their spokesperson pointed to their grocery category, which “[makes] fresh fruit and vegetables more accessible for thousands of Australians”.

The spokesperson also said “quinoa, kale, bowls, brussel sprouts, edamame, acai, kombucha, hummus, poke and brown rice” all increased in popularity since June 2020. However according to our assessment, these items were not as popular or as well spruiked as the unhealthy menu items.

Independent outlets: how healthy are their menus?

In Sydney, we found independent takeaway stores, like your local kebab shop or fish and chip shop, are the second most popular food outlet type (30% of all food outlets).

In a separate study, we analysed the menu items (13,841 in total) from 196 of Sydney’s most popular independent takeaway stores on Uber Eats. We used a classification system of 38 different food and beverage categories based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines.

We found more than 80% of all the menu items were discretionary or “junk” foods. A large number of menu items (42%) were categorised as “discretionary cereal-based mixed meals”, which includes foods such as pizzas, burgers, kebabs and pidés. Other types of junk foods could be battered fish or chicken schnitzel, and sugary drinks, among others.

Marketing tactics don’t help

Both these studies demonstrate the abundance of unhealthy menu items available on these platforms. This, combined with in-app marketing tactics, can hinder consumers from making healthier choices.

We found unhealthier menu items were more than twice as likely to be categorised as “most popular” than healthier options on Uber Eats. In addition, unhealthy menu items were nearly one-and-a-half times more likely to include a photo, and over six times more likely to be offered as a value bundle compared with healthier items.

In another study, we observed how online food delivery services have leveraged the pandemic to promote junk food on social media.

Our recently published digital marketing analysis on the Instagram accounts of nine online food delivery services across three regions (Australia/New Zealand, North America and the United Kingdom) found nearly 70% of all food advertised was junk food.

In 2020, 32% of posts referenced the pandemic. Most commonly, the messaging in these posts encouraged consumers to stay home and get food delivered to support local businesses.

While of course during lockdowns it’s important to stay at home, and supporting local businesses is noble, worryingly, more than 97% of the food items featured in COVID-related Instagram posts from Australia and the UK were junk foods.

Can we promote healthier choices in the digital age?

Easy access to junk foods and drinks enabled by online food delivery presents a further challenge to the increasing rates of obesity. Australian data suggest 16% of 18 to 24-year-olds are obese. In New Zealand, around one in three people over 15 are obese.

The World Health Organization has acknowledged the growing impact of online food environments on people’s diet choices. For the benefit of public health, it urges collective action by food industry, governments, policy makers and researchers.

In line with the WHO, we propose the following actions:

  1. include healthy online food environments in the National Obesity Strategy. This is a ten-year strategy, currently under consultation, that will guide Australia’s actions on the overweight and obesity epidemic. The public, particularly young people, have asked for supportive food environments that will enable them to make healthy food choices. This framework will be an important way to put the public health impact of online food delivery services on the agenda
  2. restrict junk food advertising on social media. Online food delivery services need to be considered with the broader food industry in government policies restricting junk food advertising to young people
  3. generate clear public health messaging on health and environmental impacts. Research has suggested convenient takeaway produces excessive amounts of waste. Combining the messaging may enhance potential for behaviour change.

In a world disrupted by COVID-19, the way we purchase and consume food is changing. The time is ripe to shape the online food environment to promote easy access to healthy and nutritious convenience food.

This article draws on research by former University of Sydney Masters students Andriana Korai and Celina Wang.


See Croakey’s archive of stories about the food policies.

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Summer reading 2020-2021
Tasmanian election 2021
Testing Croakey News category 1
The Croakey Archives
#cripcroakey
#HealthEquity16
#HealthMatters
#IHMayDay (all years)
#IHMayDay 2014
#IHMayDay15
#IHMayday16
#IHMayDay17
#IHMayDay18
#LoveRural 2014
Croakey Conference News Service 2013 – 2019
2013 conferences
Australian Centre for Health Services Innovation Forum 2013
Australian Health Promotion Association Conference 2013
Closing the Credibility Gap 2013
CRANAplus Conference 2013
FASD Conference 2013
Health Workforce Australia 2013
International Health Literacy Network Conference 2013
NACCHO Summit 2013
National Rural Health Conference 2013
Oceania EcoHealth Symposium 2013
PHAA conference 2013
2014 conferences
#IPCHIV14
AIDA Conference 2014
Congress Lowitja 2014
CRANAplus conference 2014
Cultural Solutions - Healing Foundation forum 2014
Lowitja Institute Continuous Quality Improvement conference 2014
National Suicide Prevention Conference 2014
Racism and children/youth health symposium 2014
Rural & Remote Health Scientific Symposium 2014
2015 conferences
#CPHCEforum
#CRANAplus15
#HSR15
#NRHC15
#OTCC15
Population Health Congress 2015
2016 conferences
#AHHAsim16
#AHMRC16
#ANROWS2016
#ATSISPEP
#AusCanIndigenousWellness
#cphce2016
#CPHCEforum16
#CRANAplus2016
#IAMRA2016
#LowitjaConf2016
#PreventObesity16
#TowardsRecovery
#VMIAC16
#WearablesCEH
#WICC2016
2017 conferences
#17APCC
#ACEM17
#AIDAconf2017
#BTH20
#CATSINaM17
#ClimateHealthStrategy
#IAHAConf17
#IDS17
#LBQWHC17
#LivingOurWay
#OKtoAskAu
#OTCC2017
#ResearchTranslation17
#TheMHS2017