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Is it more infectious? Is it spreading in schools? This is what we know about the Delta variant and kids

Introduction by Croakey: School children in Greater Sydney, the Blue Mountains, Central Coast, Shellharbour and Wollongong had been due to return to school for Term 3 next week but will be under a “learning from home model” now that the COVID-19 lockdown has been extended to Friday 16 July.

To date, the advice is that all students across NSW will return to face to face learning from Monday 19 July.

Ahead of the announced extension, the Royal Australasian College of Physicians last week warned that school closures should only be used as a last resort in containing COVID-19 outbreaks, and only occur on a case-by-case basis such as when a case or contact is detected within a school setting.

The RACP said there is little evidence to show schools are a high-risk transmission environment for children, but there is risk for teachers so it was calling for all staff in school settings to be given priority access to vaccines to quell anxiety and “increase the inclination towards letting schools remain open during snap lockdowns”.

“A range of measures can be undertaken to manage the health risks associated with schools remaining open such as avoiding large gatherings, minimising adult mixing on the school campus, mask use, and staggering the start and end of the school day,” it said, urging the Federal Government to raise the issue with States and Territories through the Australian Health Protection Principal Committee.

The article below, originally published at The Conversation, assesses the risks to children and in schools with the Delta variant, and the risks and benefits of vaccination for children and young people.


Margie Danchin, Archana Koirala, Fiona Russell and Philip Britton write:

The Delta variant is surging across the globe, and the World Health Organization warns it will rapidly become the world’s dominant strain of COVID-19.

Delta is more infectious than the Alpha variant, and preliminary data suggest children and adolescents are at greater risk of becoming infected with this variant, and transmitting it.

Is this true? And with Sydney school students set to begin term 3 remotely, what’s the best way to manage school outbreaks?

Let’s take a look at the evidence.

Delta in children and young people

In the United Kingdom, where the Delta variant has been predominating since May, infections are rising fastest among 17-29-year-olds, who are mostly unvaccinated. Infections are also increasing in younger age groups, but at a lower rate.

Overall, increased transmission among children and young people may partly be due to Delta. But also, in countries like the UK, these age groups are most susceptible to infection because older groups have been largely vaccinated.

While we don’t yet have data on the severity of illness in children associated with the Delta variant specifically, we know with COVID generally, kids are much less likely to become very unwell.

Research from the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute found children clear the virus more quickly than adults, which might go some way to explaining this.

Read more: Why is Delta such a worry? It’s more infectious, probably causes more severe disease, and challenges our vaccines

How is Delta affecting transmission in schools?

In 2020, face-to-face learning wasn’t a significant contributor to community transmission in Victoria. Similarly, during the first wave in New South Wales, transmission rates were low in education settings. Concerns children may bring infections home to vulnerable family members weren’t supported by the evidence.

However, the situation is looking somewhat different now with the emergence of new variants and varying levels of vaccine coverage in different countries.

There does appear to be more transmission in schools. In the week ending June 27 there were outbreaks in 11 nursery schools, 78 primary schools, 112 secondary schools and 18 special needs schools in the UK.

While outbreaks in schools are increasing, the vast majority of transmission still occurs in households.

In 2021 in Australia, there have been very few school infections with Delta. In Western Australia, where schools have remained open, an infectious case attended three schools but this didn’t result in any school outbreaks.

During the current NSW outbreak, there have been several schools and early childhood centres with COVID-19 cases, and we have seen one outbreak at a primary school.

Although schools in Australia have largely been spared, transmission rates have been higher than we’ve seen with other variants. Almost all household contacts of cases are becoming infected.

In the recent Melbourne primary school outbreak, our research yet to be published showed that 100% of the household contacts of children who were infected at school went on to test positive.

Fortunately, testing, tracing and isolating were very effective in containing the outbreak, even with the Delta variant.

But these recent school outbreaks highlight why it’s so important adults of all ages, especially parents and teachers, get vaccinated.

Should we vaccinate children?

There are benefits of vaccinating children, particularly teenagers. These include direct protection against the disease, but also reducing transmission to vulnerable adults and enabling continued school attendance.

The risks and benefits need to be carefully calculated in a low transmission setting like Australia. In terms of risks, emerging data suggest the mRNA vaccines Pfizer and Moderna are associated with a very small risk of myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and pericarditis (inflammation of the heart lining) in young adolescents and adults, particularly males. Although most cases are mild, it can be a serious condition and is being closely monitored.

Read more: Let’s hold off vaccinating children and teens against COVID-19. Prioritising adults is our best shot for now

The United States, Canada, and a few countries in Europe are already vaccinating children over 12. Australia’s drug regulator is currently weighing this up.

For now, we should continue to vaccinate adults in priority groups. We have a long way to go to get the most vulnerable vaccinated first, and are still constrained by vaccine supply.

As we grapple with the benefits and risks for teenagers, it’s also worth asking them if they want to be vaccinated and why. Many have been adversely impacted by the pandemic and are desperate to move on with their lives.

What should parents look out for?

With the Delta variant, a headache, sore throat and runny nose are now the most commonly reported symptoms among unvaccinated people.

These symptoms have eclipsed fever and cough, the most common symptoms earlier in the pandemic.

So it’s imperative parents still take their children to be tested if they become unwell, even if the symptoms appear more like the common cold.

Australia hasn’t yet approved COVID vaccines for use in children or adolescents. Shutterstock

Where to from here?

When adults are more widely vaccinated and our borders open, school outbreaks will likely continue to happen. Even in places like Israel, where a high proportion of the population has received two doses, school outbreaks have recently occurred.

Australia needs a clear plan that outlines how best to keep schools open, while preventing transmission and keeping children and teachers safe during any outbreaks.

The Royal Australasian College of Physicians last week called for a national plan to this end.

This should include school staff being prioritised for vaccination.

And until we have high vaccination coverage, there’s evidence that well implemented school-based mitigation measures work to prevent transmission in education settings.

This could include a range of measures, adjusted according to risk, such as keeping non-essential adults off school grounds, mask use in high school students (and possibly primary students too), staggering timetables, reducing class sizes and improving classroom ventilation.

Read more: The symptoms of the Delta variant appear to differ from traditional COVID symptoms. Here’s what to look out for

By monitoring the effects of new variants on children’s health, coupled with detailed risk-benefit analyses, we will determine the best time for children and adolescents to be vaccinated.

In the meantime, parents and all eligible adults can do their bit to protect children and reduce the risk of school outbreaks by getting vaccinated themselves.

Margie Danchin is a paediatrician at the Royal Childrens Hospital and Associate Professor and Clinician Scientist, University of Melbourne and MCRI, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute.

Archana Koirala is a aediatrician and Infectious Diseases Specialist, University of Sydney.

Fiona Russell is a Senior Principal Research Fellow; paediatrician; infectious diseases epidemiologist; vaccinologist, The University of Melbourne.

Philip Britton is Senior lecturer, Child and Adolescent Health, University of Sydney


See Croakey’s archive of stories about child health.

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